The city of Syracuse is spread on the promontory-island of Ortigia as well as in the mainland. The shape of the coastline has formed the wide bay of Porto Grande, formed from the Island to the north and south from the promontory of Plemmirio.
Its geological aspect is included in the area Iblea; this area is a structure that forms part of the northern foothills of the African Plate, which has in the Mediterranean its point of confrontation with the European plate. Geophysicists researchers found that in the Iblei Mountains has formed another plate called “micro-plate Sicilian-iblea” which is part of the African plate and the surrounding seas and is now the cause of the strongest earthquakes occurring in the Eastern part of the island.
The Iblei Mountains are composed of white limestone rocks conchiglifere, from carbonate rocks originating from marine sediments deposited in the Miocene; The territory where now born Syracuse, was once covered by water, and the proof is the many fossils of shells visible on the surrounding rocks. Its mountain ranges are not very large because it is the nearest land; There are mostly hills, whose highest peak is Mount Epipoli.
Near Cassibile, however there is a large canyon, which has been carved over the centuries by the river Anapo. The river Anapo is one of Syracuse rivers, which flows for forty kilometers, and has a character mainly torrential; Then there is the Ciane river that has a short river that flows into the Great Harbour, where it joins with the Anapo; It is a river continuously fed even in summer.
Another river is the city of Cassibile and is thirty kilometers long, runs between the towns of Avola and Palazzolo Acreide, resulting in the Ionian Sea. The canals crossing Syracuse are: Mammaiàbica, Pismotta and Queen. The lakes and small waterfalls are located in Cava Grande del Cassibile.
In the city there is a source of fresh water, the famous Fountain of Arethusa, and an artificial cave, called the Cave of the Nymph, from which flows the water called Galermi aqueduct. Siracusa overlooking the Mediterranean Sea with the Ionian Sea basin.
Its coasts are formed mainly by rocks, but there are also wide sandy beaches. The municipalities with whom borders are: to the north with Priolo Gargallo and Garden City (fraction of Melilli), to the west with Solarino, Floridia, Palazzolo Acreide, Noto and Canicattini Bagni and on the south by Noto and Avola. The territorial boundaries are bordered to the north by Targia district; west from Belvedere, panoramic outpost; south from Cassibile and Fontane Bianche.